The history of life on earth has been mostly microbial.Since life began 3.8 billion years ago to date microbes are the most abundant and effective forms of life on earth.
Microbes have also played an important role in biogeochemical processes, which helped make the biosphere a more habitable for other forms of life place, and remain indispensable in mineralization and nutrient cycling. Microbial Ecology, science is in charge of studying the role of microorganisms in the biosphere. This bridge between Ecology and Microbiology,It is characterized by significant progress towards a better understanding of the fundamental principles governing the structure and function of water, air and land ecosystems and the role of microorganisms within them.
The mechanisms that maintain microbial diversity in biosphere are the basis of the dynamics of ecosystems. For example, they are the basis of existence for example of forests and agricultural systems. Moreover, the soil microbial diversity is the cause of the fertility.
The importance of microbes is also exemplified by the crucial role of their symbiotic relationships with plants and animals. symbionts parasitic relationships are capable of causing virulent diseases and are a significant factor in driving biodiversity. At the opposite pole, mutualisms with microorganisms, once considered rare and minor, are now recognized as having influenced the evolution of life in a variety of ways. This invisible world, present in all environments where conditions allow somehow life,
It has long been ignored or treated very rudimentary form in classical studies Ecology. But his participation in the most fundamental cycles that allow life on earth has generated a boom in their study primarily through molecular biology techniques, which they have been progressing very parallel with the new discoveries in this field.